On a celebratory note, as we bring in the new year let us celebrate the long awaited “The Crocodile Islands Draft IPA 2017 – a heady blend of local cultures and more cosmopolitan strains pitched in Yan-nhaŋu some 20 years ago in Big Boss and Bentley’s multilingual Murruŋga Island brewery”
A forward looking copy of the Crocodile Islands Rangers Mariŋa Indigenous Protected Area Draft Plan of Management: 2017-2022 reminds us, at this transitional time, to remember how we got here. Those who forget the past are bound to relive it. Or as Big Boss was want to say “Limalanha gurrku mana maŋutjiguma limalama djäma märr ḏilak yanama dhuyugu Yolŋulu gurruku mana nhäma marŋgiyirri limalagara. Bilabilagumunu ŋanapuluma nhaŋ’kumunu dhäŋuny bulthuna nhapiyana mananha limalama ḏilak miṯṯji nyenanha baman’ŋatjili”. We follow the way of the ancestors, the way of those who come before.
The Crocodile Islands Draft IPA is a worthy classic of culture and power nurtured in the way of the Dao-der-Jiŋ: Dao- strength, power, and integrity, virtue: Jiŋ -way, path, custom, manner.
The way that can be spoken is not the constant way,
The name that can be named is not the constant name,
The nameless was the beginning of heaven and earth,
The named was the mother of the myriad things,
Hence always rid yourself of desire to know its secrets,
But always have desire in order to observe its manifestations.
I wrote the following introduction for the ‘Crocodile Islands Rangers Mariŋa Indigenous Protected Area Draft Plan of Management: 2017-2022 to celebrate the virtue and insight of Big Boss,  leader of Mariŋa,  for alas, most of those now working on her projects never met her, let alone speak her language or visited the secret places of the islands.
Laurie Baymarrwaŋa (1917-2014)  was a humble and inspirational leader. She lived to celebrate many triumphs including creating a homeland and a bilingual school, saving her language, gaining recognition as the ‘Traditional Owner’ over her country, winning the 2012 Senior Australian of the Year award  and creating the Crocodile Islands Initiative (CII) incorporating the Crocodile Islands Ranger (CIR) Program junior rangers programand Turtle Sanctuary to name a few. Baymarrwaŋa spent a lifetime promoting the intergenerational transmission of local language and knowledge to sustain authentic livelihoods and links to homelands unique to this remote part of Australia’s marine estate:
‘Nhaŋu dhaŋuny yuwalkthana Yolŋu miṯṯji marŋgimana dhana mayali’ mana dhaŋuny mana limalama ganatjirri maramba barrathalayuma gurrku mana waŋgalaŋga.’
‘We will pass on the stories (wisdom) of our sea country for the new generation to make it strong.’ Laurie Baymarrwaŋa, 1999.
In 2003, after ten years of cultural mapping, detailed recording over five hundred previously undocumented sites in the sea and on the islands and a wealth of associated Yan-nhaŋu language and local knowledge, we began the Crocodile Islands Initiative (CII).
This family of projects gave life to the Crocodile Islands Rangers (CIR) and Junior Rangers programs promoting life-long language learning and authentic livelihoods on country. The first rangers worked as volunteers. In 2003, she began a plan for the nascent ranger program to feed local children with fish, ‘Lima gurrku guya riya-gunhanyini ŋalimalamagu yitjiwala gurruṯuwaygu : We will give our kids fish (Baymarrwaŋa 2002).
In 2011 she was awarded the ‘NT Research and Innovation Awards Special Commendation’ celebrating her ‘outstanding and inspiring lifetime contribution.’After receiving recognition as the senior Maḻarra traditional owner of her father’s estate at Galiwin’ku she was finally able to fund the Crocodile Islands Rangers program she had been denied for twenty years.
It is instructive then, given the nature of bureaucratic churn and the superficiality of administrative knowledge, to taste something of the precursors to the CIR IPA 2017-2022.
In 1993 we began to map the sites of the seas and Crocodile Islands for posterity and the cultural future of her children’s children. Unbeknownst and unencumbered by wider interests and of those living outside of Murruŋga, we began to distil a picture of place legible to a wider society, unrecognisant and illiterate in Yan-nhaŋu, and of the near invisible ancestral links to country germinating from countless generations of coexistence with the sea. By 1995 we had recorded some five hundred sites in the seas and islands.
In 1996 we worked to make the law of the ancestors clear in the language of the ancestors. Big boss says “ bäyŋugurubu Yolŋulu yana mananha nhäna mananha barŋaranha yana mananha napiyana mananha yindimirribulu nyenanha limalama baman’ ŋatjili. In short we keep to the law.
In 1999 we envisaged the idea of a (CII) Crocodile Islands Initiative, (CIR) Crocodile Islands Ranger Program and Junior Ranger Program to operationalise investment in land and sea country for future generations. In 2003, through our translation of Yan-nhaŋu custom and the language of the islands we made available to others in Yolŋu Matha and English the fantastic inheritance of a rich and vibrant ritual, linguistic and ecological knowledge, inextricably linked to ancestral sites of the islands and the surrounding seas – ‘the reward of generations of intimate coexistence with the marine environment’. Baymarrwaŋa was compelled by the enormity of this task to undertake the initiative for the protection and nurturance of this unique and endangered inheritance, for all future Australians.
In 2004 we translated for the (NAMBS) North Australia Marine Biodiversity Survey the first inquiry into the flora and fauna of inshore waters of north Australia since Mathew Flinders in 1803. This survey found the pristine environments around the Crocodile Islands of national and international significance but more importantly recognised the crucial role of indigenous knowledge and management of marine biodiversity in the seagrass habitats and associated flora and fauna of inshore waters. The Survey greatly improved scientific understanding across the Top End coast, as well as establishing a foundation for future collaborative work between Yan-nhaŋu people, scientists and Governments. We reiterated that ownership, use and practice of traditional knowledge in its local context must be acknowledged as a foundation for equitable partnerships and that indigenous knowledge is inescapably linked to local language and culture.
In November 2009 the Biodiversity Conservation Unit of the NT Department of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport (NRETAS) was engaged to look at the biodiversity conservation values of the Crocodile Islands not yet visited by scientists. Whilst researchers had previously found that there had been a significant decline in small mammal populations on the mainland of northern Australia, the Crocodile Islands were found to provide an important refuge for wildlife without some of the major threats so extensive elsewhere (such as cane toad, cat, pig and frequent fire) on the mainland.
The CIR vision is about ensuring positive diversity for the children of the islands, the diversity that underlies the future of healthy socio-cultural and linguistic, ecological, and economic systems all around the world. Today, 2017, the CIR reflects the strategic framework we designed to deliver efficient and cost effective land and sea management on indigenous lands and, through a multiplier effects, delivers substantial economic, educational and cultural benefits more broadly, to Miliŋimbi people and surrounding Yolŋu communities, and to an awakening wider world. Underlying our intellectual and physical investment in the CIR and associated projects was a vision, a vision with unshakable commitment to Yan-nhaŋu concerns, and those of local kin, and more broadly local issues in sync with global environmental issues.
Baymarrwaŋa and I designed this badge to display a central idea. We made it to represent the vision to enhance the fecundity of local and wider marine resources. The Mariŋa Ocean alludes to the waters of the Arafura sea, linked in ceremonial alliance by Dhuwa and Yirritja Yan-nhaŋu speaking bäpurru or clans. The barramundi (ratjuk) is a symbol of the Yirritja sea (ganatjirri dhulway) and the barracuda (larratjatja) embodies the Dhuwa waters of (ganatjirri maramba). Together they provide a metaphor for the ritual care and re-fecundification of turtle and marine resources.
‘Drink deep draughts O the well of knowledge, for a little knowledge is a dangerous thing’-Alexander Pope (1688 – 1744), or more poignantly, Francis Bacon’s essay: Of Atheism, 1601 “A little philosophy inclineth man’s mind to atheism; but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion.” – pre-agrarian animism, love for the spirits of country, fruitfulness and prosperity, welcome fecundity, welcome open mindedness, welcome 2018. Thanks to all those who follow this inspirational dream. A new era begins….
Happy 2018 xox
 James, B. 2003a. Report for the Northern Land Council on Maḻarra, Gamalaŋga and Wanguri Bäpurru of Milingimbi and Crocodile Islands. Anthropology Section, Land Information Resource. Restricted. Darwin. N.T.
 Six Yan-nhaŋu clans or bäpurru of two moieties, three Dhuwa bäpurru—Gamalaŋga, Maḻarra and Gurryindi—and the three Yirritja bäpurru —Walamaŋu, Biṉḏarra and Ŋurruwulu— are known as, and refer to themselves as, Märiŋa, people of the sea (James 2003, 2009, 2014). Märiŋa (Maringa) refers to a shared ceremonial connection by these bäpurru with the sea.
 Baymarrwaŋa, L, and B, James. 2014. Yan-nhaŋu Atlas and Illustrated Dictionary of the Crocodile Islands. Tien wah press, Singapore & Sydney Australia. p 576
 Posthumous award of the United Nations Peace Prize for Indigenous Film. 2015. ‘Big Boss Last Leader of the Crocodile Islands: Buŋgawa bathala rom ḏäl ga rälpa ḏumurru’. Year: 2015. NITV; Runtime: 53 min, Directed By: Paul Sinclair, Produced By: Jade Sinclair Matt Dwyer, Language: Yan-nhangu language, English subtitles
 James. B., Baymarrwaŋa, L., Gularrbaŋg,R., Darga, M., Nyambal, R., Nyŋunyuŋu 2, M. 2003. Yan-nhaŋu Dictionary. Milingimbi, CEC Literature Production Centre Northern Territory University press. Darwin. N.T.
 James, B. 2006b. Report for the Northern Land Council, Background, Constitution and Articulation of Traditional Land Ownership for the Town Area of Galiwin’ku from Dhambalaŋur to Dayirri Ck.
 James, B. 2010c. Crocodile Islands Rangers Prospectus Report on prospects for upscaling Ranger Program for Yan-nhangu Maringa language groups and sea country. Murrungga Island. Unpublished. N.T.
 James, B. 2005a. Regional Activity Plan RAP Dugong and Marine Turtle – Maringa and Gulalay Yan-nhangu speaking people, Crocodile Islands, North Coast Arnhem Land, Northern Territory NAILSMA Ltd. C.D.U. Darwin. N.T.
 Aigner, K (editor), 2017. Australia: the Vatican Museums collection. CittaÌ del Vaticano : Edizioni Musei Vaticani Exhibition Vatican City Vatican Museums Ethnological Collection. Vatican City, Rome, Italy.
 Baymarrwaŋa, L, and B, James. 2014. Yan-nhaŋu Atlas and Illustrated Dictionary of the Crocodile Islands. Tien wah press, Singapore & Sydney Australia.
 http://www.savanna.org.au/nailsma/projects/downloads/INNOVATION-AWARDS-BAYMARRWANGA CI-letterhead-11-11.pdf
 NAIDOC WEEK 2017 Poster ‘Our Languages Matter ‘ Laurie Baymarrwaŋa and Bentley James – a language partnership’ Batchelor National Aboriginal and Islanders Day Observance Committee press. Canberra. ACT.
 NT Research and Innovation Awards.http://www.savanna.org.au/nailsma/projects/downloads/INNOVATION-AWARDS-BAYMARRWANGA-CI-letterhead-11-11.pdf, http://www.savanna.org.au/nailsma/projects/downloads/ON-CAMPUS-ANU-RECOGNITION.pdf
 ‘Big Boss.’ Year: 2012 Ronin Films, Runtime: 25 min, Directed By: Paul Sinclair, Produced By: Tom Zubrycki, Language: Yan-nhangu language, English subtitles.
2007 North Australian Marine Biodiversity Survey-interactions between indigenous knowledge and western science (2007)
 Conservation significance in the Castlereagh Bay and associated islands (NRETAS 2009) and Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan and NT Regional Investment Strategy (2006).
 The moieties Dhuwa and Yirritja are two halves of an ideational system that divides the world into two categories fundamentally classifying every aspect of the Yolŋu universe. Everything is either one or the other, so that every aspect of the physical and nomenal world, person or animal is Dhuwa or Yirritja, and is essentially/spiritually associated with a particular Dhuwa or a Yirritja bäpurru (clan).
 The cycle of water provides a powerful metaphor for understanding a Yolŋu world view. A view linking all aspects of natural diversity into a network of connectedness, creating an environment populated with social and ecological relations. This network of human and biological interconnectedness is articulated through the idiom of kinship and as such implies obligations for the care of the lands and seas and waters. The underlying patterns of ancestral waters form a flowing system, a geography of human and environmental relations reflecting the distribution of clans or bäpurru understood by a generation of people that lived before the coming of the Miliŋimbi mission and the children of predominantly eastern bäpurru groups that followed.